To end gun violence, build on what works (2023)

Washington’s public health approach to confronting America’s epidemic of gun violence is saving lives

In 2016, a teenager, jealous and angry after a breakup, bought a military-style assault rifle. A week later, he walked into a house party in Mukilteo and killed three of his peers, including his ex-girlfriend, and wounded a fourth person. In 2012, a 3-year-old boy in Tacoma found his father’s gun in their car and accidentally shot himself in the head. In January, a man with no apparent history of violent crime walked into a convenience store in Yakima, shot and killed three people he had never met, and then turned his gun on himself.

America’s ongoing epidemic of gun violence has in recent years spurred “a sea-change in Washington’s gun laws,” as The Seattle Times wrote in a 2022 editorial. Washington’s voters led the way by passing I-1639 in 2018, the most comprehensive gun control legislation in state history. At one fell swoop, Washington became one of the top 10 states in terms of gun responsibility laws, according to the Giffords Law Center. In the years since then, Washington has enacted more policies to prevent gun violence, including bans on bump stocks and high capacity magazines, tools that essentially turn a semiautomatic weapon into a machine gun. Washington’s strategy, though, extends beyond prohibiting the gun-modification devices mass shooters and criminals have used to devastating effect.

Over the last five years, Gov. Jay Inslee’s administration has borrowed from the field of public health to implement a new, ongoing approach to prevent gun violence in Washington. This new framework encourages data-sharing across city and county lines, along with a more nuanced process of analyzing data sets to tailor violence prevention and intervention strategies to specific cities and communities. To facilitate this work, the Legislature approved the creation of a new Office of Firearm Safety and Violence Prevention that opened in 2021.

“You can’t fix what you don’t measure.” says Kate Kelly, the office’s executive director. “Robust data can help identify alternatives to more traditional responses to firearm violence, identifying which strategies should be implemented and invested in.”

As an example, Kelly’s office partnered with researchers from the University of Washington to compile an inventory of existing sources of Washington firearms-related data. This comprehensive effort gathered data from across healthcare systems, criminal justice sources, and firearm-related licensing and sales records in order to engage the owners and users of the systems.

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Analyzing this data gave Kelly’s team a better understanding of the characteristics and trends in firearm-related incidents. As a result, the office now provides actionable information to local law enforcement agencies, healthcare providers, public policy leaders and other partners across Washington.

To end gun violence, build on what works (1)

What’s working

Fundamentally, Washington’s strategy is about putting protocols in place that prevent gun violence stemming from any number of circumstances.

“Research has identified connections between domestic violence, mass violence, community violence, violence against law enforcement and suicide,” Kelly says.

Her office has promoted and helped expand programs to reduce violence across every one of these categories, with the guiding principle that “all types of firearm violence are preventable.”

One strategy Kelly’s team is pursuing is to increase awareness of are extreme risk protection orders (ERPOs) and other laws that can result in a court order for the surrender of firearms. Research shows that the presence of firearms makes suicide attempts and domestic violence far more likely to end in death, confirming the importance of safe storage programs and court orders requiring firearm relinquishment. Suicides account for more than 75 % of firearm related deaths in Washington. Research has shown as many as 10 suicides are prevented for every 100 guns surrendered through an ERPO.

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ERPOs are also effective in preventing fatal intimate partner violence because they provide a legal avenue for victims of domestic abuse to separate abusers from their weapons. Washington’s law is more expansive than many other states in that it allows for family and household members, as well as law enforcement, to file a petition for firearm surrender against someone deemed to be an immediate threat to themselves or others.

In 2018 and 2019, the governor, attorney general and legislators championed another series of bills to strengthen protections for victims of intimate partner violence. The new policies added domestic violence and harassment to the list of crimes that prevent someone from legally possessing a firearm. They also allow individuals to be notified if someone subject to a protection order — like an abusive ex-partner — fails a background check in the process of attempting to buy a weapon.

To end gun violence, build on what works (2)

In addition to ERPOs, safe storage programs have become another keystone of gun violence prevention in Washington. The state has made it convenient for people to find options to store their weapons safely inside or outside of their homes. Groups like Seattle Children’s Hospital have started programs to provide free firearm lock boxes, trigger locks and safe storage training to gun owners. These efforts effectively prevent accidents and firearm incidents inside and outside of the home, creating safer environments for children and their families alike.

Washington has also taken a community-based approach to combating community and gang violence. In 2017, the governor hosted a summit of community leaders, educators and police officers to discuss prevention, intervention and suppression strategies. His administration has consistently called on the Legislature to increase funding for diversion programs in the Yakima Valley and other areas where this violence is concentrated to deter young people from joining gangs or participating in criminal activity.

Other communities and stakeholders in Washington are also approaching firearm violence prevention innovatively. In 2021, Harborview Medical Center implemented a novel protocol for patients with firearm injuries.

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Rather than simply being treated and released, gunshot victims at Harborview can now meet with a counselor, often someone who has been the victim of gun-violence themselves, and learn about resources available to them, including mental health support, information about returning to school or gainful employment and food assistance. The program essentially turns a hospital stay into an opportunity for individuals to break free from cycles of gun violence.

The statistics broadly show that Washington’s work to counteract the epidemic of gun violence has been effective. From 2018 to 2021, while the number of deaths by firearm nationwide increased substantially, rates in Washington did not mirror that trend. Firearm deaths in Washington remain well below national averages. Even so, gun violence continues to claim the lives of Washingtonians every day, which is why Inslee, Attorney General Bob Ferguson, and legislators are proposing additional firearm safety measures for this year’s legislative session.

To end gun violence, build on what works (3)

What’s next

Among the gun responsibility proposals up for debate in Olympia now, is a permit-to-purchase bill requested by Inslee. This would require all prospective firearm purchasers to complete safety training and apply directly to the Washington State Patrol for a permit before purchasing a gun. With a smaller proportion of first-time gun buyers purchasing a firearm for hunting — an activity for which a license and training has long been a standard legal requirement — more of Washington’s new gun-owners increasingly lack any kind of training in how to handle and store a gun safely. In the face of that trend, Inslee says the permit-to-purchase policy is a common-sense method of ensuring gun owners have the knowledge necessary to handle their weapons properly. The bill would also put in place a 10 day waiting period for all firearm purchases.

There is strong, compelling evidence that permit-to-purchase laws reduce gun violence substantially. Cassandra Crifasi, a gun owner who grew up in Washington, now works as an associate professor of health policy at Johns Hopkins University. She recently testified in support of the bill.

“These are evidence-based policies that are associated with reductions in multiple forms of gun violence,” Crifasi said. “States with laws requiring prospective gun purchasers to first get a license experience fewer guns being diverted for use in crime, lower rates of gun homicide, including mass shootings and lower rates of firearm suicide.”

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Connecticut, for example, enacted a permit-to-purchase law nearly 30 years ago and saw a 40% drop in gun homicides in the decade that followed.

The governor and attorney general have also requested two additional gun safety policy proposals. The first is a ban on assault weapons, backed by 60% of Washington residents. The second is a bill that will ensure gun manufacturers face civil investigation under the Consumer Protection Act if they fail to keep guns out of the hands of dangerous people. This bill passed in the Senate on March 2.

“This policy will ensure that the gun industry is treated like every other industry and faces real consequences for irresponsible conduct,” Ferguson said after the bill advanced.

Laws that reduce gun violence are just one element in the administration’s efforts to improve public safety.

“We need to escape the trap that public safety is about any one thing,” Inslee said in his State of the State speech earlier this year.

Building out mental health supports for those experiencing a behavioral health crisis, such as the state’s 988 emergency line, supporting drug treatment programs and training more law enforcement will continue to be key parts of the administration’s strategy.


What have we done to stop gun violence? ›

Through comprehensive firearm licensing policies, large capacity magazine limits, safe firearm storage, and extreme risk protective orders but also hospital-based and community-based violence intervention programs, police reform, addressing social determinants of health, and dismantling structural racism.

What problems does gun violence cause? ›

Exposure to gun violence is associated with: 26, 27, 28, 29 ○ Posttraumatic stress disorder, ○ Antisocial behavior, ○ Depression, ○ Stunted cognitive and emotional development, ○ Risky alcohol and substance use, and ○ Increased likelihood in engaging in violence.

What is a good thesis statement for gun violence? ›

Thesis Statement: Gun control decreases crime. If gun control is regulated, then we will have less crime. Access to firearms makes killing easy, efficient, and impersonal, which increases the lethality of crime.

What can communities do to reduce gun violence? ›

Establish a culture of gun safety. Reduce firearm access to youth and individuals who are at risk of harming themselves or others. Hold the gun industry accountable and ensure there is adequate oversight over the marketing and sales of guns and ammunition. Engage responsible gun dealers and owners in solutions.

What are the benefits of gun control? ›

More gun control laws would reduce gun deaths.

There were 572,537 total gun deaths between 1999 and 2016: 336,579 suicides (58.8% of total gun deaths); 213,175 homicides (37.2%); and 11,428 unintentional deaths (2.0%). [162] Guns were the leading cause of death by…

How does Gun Violence impact youth? ›

By 2021, suicide deaths by firearm accounted for nearly half of all suicides among children and adolescents. Following a brief period of decline, suicide deaths by firearm increased by 26% among youth, from 657 deaths in 2019 to 857 deaths in 2021 (Figure 2).

What is a good thesis statement for a story? ›

A strong thesis statement is specific.

A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say: World hunger has many causes and effects.

What is a good thesis statement for a paper? ›

Thesis statements should be constructed so that they are specific and direct to the point. Your thesis message should be clear enough to remove any ambiguity about the purpose of the study or paper. The thesis statement should also clearly state your main argument or your stand on the issue your research discusses.

What is a good example of a thesis statement? ›

Example of an argumentative thesis statement: High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness.

How can a community lessen violence and cruelty? ›

Strengthen Anti-Violence Social Norms and Peer Relationships. Engage and Support Youth. Reduce Substance Abuse. Mitigate Financial Stress.

How effective are violence intervention programs? ›

CVIs are proven to reduce violent crime and gun violence

Some examples include: Homicides and nonfatal shootings have been reduced by as much as 60 percent in areas where group violence intervention models have been implemented.

Why we should not ban guns? ›

Guns are a necessary tool in a violent world. They provide protection from muggings, home invasions, terrorist incidents, and mass shootings. Furthermore, an armed citizenry is (as a last resort) a guarantee against tyranny.

How does gun violence affect public health? ›

It's the leading cause of premature death in the United States, killing 38,000 people and causing nearly 85,000 injuries each year,” she says. “That's more than 100 deaths and more than 230 wounded every day.”

What causes violence? ›

Conventionally, violence is understood to be often driven by negative emotions, such as anger or fear. For example, a person might become aggressive because they were enraged at another person, or they were afraid the other person might hurt them.

How does violence impact development? ›

[1] Exposure to violence can harm a child's emotional, psychological and even physical development. Children exposed to violence are more likely to have difficulty in school, abuse drugs or alcohol, act aggressively, suffer from depression or other mental health problems and engage in criminal behavior as adults.

How to write a good conclusion? ›

In a general way,
  1. Restate your topic and why it is important,
  2. Restate your thesis/claim,
  3. Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  4. Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

What is a thesis statement in an essay about a short story? ›

A thesis is to an essay what a theme is to a short story, play, or poem: it's the governing idea, proposition, claim, or point. Good theses come in many shapes and sizes. A thesis cannot always be conveyed in one sentence, nor will it always appear in the same place in every essay.

How do you write a 3 story thesis? ›

  1. First Floor: Describes the topic; gives the facts; makes an observation. This level of thesis makes.
  2. Second Floor: Interprets, gives a point of view on, and/or adds controversy to the facts of the. first floor. “ ...
  3. Third Floor: Relates the two-story thesis to the bigger picture, explains its significance, sets.

What 3 things should be in a good thesis? ›

3 Things You Need to Write the Perfect Thesis
  • A good thesis statement will make an arguable claim. ...
  • A good thesis statement will control the content of the entire paper. ...
  • A good thesis will provide a structure for your paper.
Dec 8, 2021

Can a thesis be two sentences? ›

A thesis statement is not always one sentence; the length of the thesis depends on the depth of the essay. Some essays may require more than a single sentence. However, the statement should be as clear and concise as possible in the final draft of the essay.

What is a theme statement? ›

A thematic statement is a complete sentence (or two) that express a theme. A thematic statement could serve as a thesis in a thematic essay.

Can a thesis statement be 3 sentences? ›

A thesis statement briefly states the purpose of your paper and why it is important. It is found usually at the end of an introduction and acts as a roadmap for the rest of your paper. Most thesis statements are only one sentence, but it can be two or three sentences if you feel it is necessary.

What is the 3 thesis statement? ›

What are the different types of thesis statements? Thesis statements can be explanatory, argumentative, or analytical.

How do you write a short thesis statement? ›

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement:
  1. Ask a question about your topic.
  2. Write your initial answer.
  3. Develop your answer by including reasons.
  4. Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.
Jan 11, 2019

How does gun violence affect students mental health? ›

Mental health effects following gun violence may include depression, anxiety, trauma, post traumatic stress disorder, intrusive thoughts, sleep problems, and personality changes. 58 Additionally, the trauma of gun violence can ripple out into the community, far beyond those who were shot or injured.

What are the impacts of violent behavior? ›

Consequences include increased incidences of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicide; increased risk of cardiovascular disease; and premature mortality. The health consequences of violence vary with the age and sex of the victim as well as the form of violence.

How does youth violence affect people's lives? ›

Youth violence can have serious and lasting effects on young people's physical, mental, and social health. It can harm development and contribute to impaired decision-making, learning challenges, decreased connections to peers and adults, and trouble coping with stress.

How does violence affect brain development? ›

Cognitive Development

A study on 1,116 twins found that childhood exposure to IPV was related to a decreased IQ compared to unexposed children, and the severity and number of violent episodes exposed to at home were associated with a greater decrease in IQ.

Why do students become violent? ›

There is no single reason why students become violent. Some are just following behavior they've seen at home, on the streets, or in video games, movies, or TV. Some are dealing with mental health problems. Some people who turn violent have been bullied.


1. Why US gun laws get looser after mass shootings
2. Demand A Plan to End Gun Violence
3. Policies That Work to Reduce Gun Violence
(American Public Health Association)
4. Why restrict 'good' gun owners, resident asks President Obama at town hall
(PBS NewsHour)
5. Chicago CRED Alumni Share Approach To End Gun Violence Following Personal Experiences
(NBC News)
6. How 'gun switches' make Chicago area shootings more dangerous
(ABC 7 Chicago)


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